The endometrium as a source of mesenchymal stem cells in domestic animals and possible applications in veterinary medicine

Ana G. Serrato López, Juan J. Montesinos Montesinos, Santiago R. Anzaldúa Arce

Abstract


Veterinaria México OA
ISSN: 2448-6760

Cite this as:

  • Serrato López AG, Montesinos Montesinos JJ, Anzaldúa Arce SR. The endometrium as a source of mesenchymal stem cells in domestic animals and possible applications in veterinary medicine. Veterinaria México OA. 2017;4(3). doi: 10.21753/vmoa.4.3.441.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from the endometrium of humans, mice, cows, pigs and ewes. Typically, these cells are detected in the deep regions of the endometrium, closer to the union with the myometrium. MSCs possess characteristics such as clonogenicity and multipotentiality since they can differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. These cells can be induced to differentiate in vitro not only into the mesodermal lineage but also into the endodermal and ectodermal lineages. Therefore, MSCs show a great regenerative capacity for various organs and tissues, including the endometrium. Some advantages of endometrial MSCs compared with other MSC sources are their immune modulating activity, their ease of obtainment, and the amount of sample that may be collected. The study of endometrial MSCs in domestic animals is a new and promising field because increasing our understanding of the physiology and biology of these cells may lead to a better understanding of the physiopathology of reproductive diseases, and the development of treatment methods for infertility problems. In other veterinary medicine fields, MSCs can be used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, cardiac affections, musculoskeletal and articular lesions, muscle degeneration, type 1 diabetes, urinary tract diseases, neurodegenerative processes and tumours. Finally, MSCs are also an important clinical tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to present an updated outlook of the knowledge regarding endometrial MSCs and their possible applications in veterinary medicine.

Figure 1: Immunoregulatory ability of MSCs. MSCs regulate the functions of NK cells, dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes. The immunosuppressive effect may occur through the secretion of different factors or through cellular contact (black arrows). The former pathway involves TGFß, HGF, IL-10, PGE2, and HLA-G5, whereas the latter pathway involves the products of IDO enzyme activity, PD-L1, HLA-G1, ICAM-I and VCAM-I. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?) secreted by NK cells and activated T lymphocytes favour the immunoregulatory activity of MSCs (dotted lines), because they increase or induce the secretion of molecules that regulate the functions of the distinct cellular components of the immune system. Modified from Montesinos et al, and Ma et al.19,66

Keywords


Uterus, mesenchymal stem cells, regenerative medicine, immune modulation, veterinary medicine.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21753/vmoa.4.3.441

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