Use of endodontic paper points and Schirmer strips for measurement of tear flow in red-lored parrots (Amazona autumnalis)

René Oswaldo Silva-Castillo, Samuel Flores-Ceballos, Adriana Margarita Ducoing-Watty, Ricardo Itzcóatl Maldonado-Reséndiz


Veterinaria México OA
ISSN: 2448-6760

Cite this as:

  • Silva-Castillo RO, Flores-Ceballos S, Ducoing-Watty AM, Maldonado-Reséndiz RI. Use of endodontic paper points and Schirmer strips for measurement of tear flow in red-lored parrots (Amazona autumnalis). Veterinaria México OA. 2019;6(1). doi: 10.22201/fmvz.24486760e.2019.1.624

Ocular diseases are sub-diagnosed in bird species, partly because of limited diagnostic methods and lack of reference data. Placement of Schirmer tear test strips in the bottom of the conjunctival sac of birds for tear flow measurement can prove to be difficult, whereas paper tips commonly used for dental procedures may be easier to use, due to a more adequate size and shape. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess and compare tear flow values, using ABC Dental® # 30 color paper tips and TearFloTM Test strips in Red-lored Parrots (Amazona autumnalis) (n = 26). Captive birds of undetermined sex were housed in groups under similar environmental conditions and fed the same diet. All animals were deemed healthy through remote and physical examinations. Average tear flow values of 0.6365 ± 0.032 cm/min and 0.5942 ± 0.032 cm/min were obtained with the Schirmer strips test and the endodontic tips respectively. Lack of difference in observed values between measurement techniques (p = 0.3629) indicates that endodontic tips may be a good alternative for tear flow assessment in Red-lored parrots. In addition, endodontic tips are more cost effective and may be less invasive. This study stresses the need to establish species specific ophthalmic reference values for clinical practice in birds, since differences have been reported even in specimens within the same genus.

Figure 1. Measurement of tear flow in Red-lored parrots using TearFloTM Test Strips


Schirmer, Endodontic paper points, Amazona autumnalis

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